李静,杜群.民用核能利用公众参与的权利表达和立法完善[J].中国环境管理,2021,13(4):128-134
民用核能利用公众参与的权利表达和立法完善
The Expression of the Right of Public Participation in Civilian Utilization of Nuclear Energy and the Improvement of Legislation
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2021.04.128
中文关键词:  民用核能利用  权利功能  知情权  参与权  监督权
英文关键词:civilian utilization of nuclear energy  function of right  right to know  right to participate  right to supervise
基金项目:国家社科基金重大研究专项“社会主义核心价值观融入生态法治的基本路径和法律样态”(19VHJ016)。
作者单位
李静 武汉大学环境法研究所, 湖北武汉 430072 
杜群 北京航空航天大学法学院, 北京 100083 
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中文摘要:
      涉核邻避事件表明,民用核能利用决策中公众参与的法律供给并不能有效满足现实的权利需求。民用核能利用公众参与权利分解为知情权、参与权和监督权,发挥着认知、沟通、认同、示助的功能,但也存在公众知识与能力有限、自利动机等局限性。本文认为,应理性对待公众参与权利,以防出现公众参与的效力过高或过低的情形。现行法中,我国民用核能利用公众参与呈现形式化保护到权利性保护的立法趋势,但权利内容并未达到完整表达,权利的实现途径和效力平衡的规定并不充分。因此,建议全面确立公众知情权;增强公众参与权的权能,包括保障公众的程序进入权、意见表达权,构建公众获得回应权和合理意见获得采纳权的保障机制;拓补公众监督权。
英文摘要:
      The “Not-In-My-Back-Yard” incidents of civilian utilization of nuclear energy show that there is a huge gap between the right demand of public participation and the legal supply in the decision-making of civilian utilization of nuclear energy. The right of public participation in civilian utilization of nuclear energy is divided into the right to know, the right to participate and the right to supervise, which plays the functions of cognition, communication, identification and assistance. However, there are also limitations such as limited public knowledge and ability, self-interested motive. We should treat the right of public participation rationally and avoid the effectiveness being too high or too low. In the current law, the civilian utilization of nuclear public participation shows a legislative trend from formalized protection to rights protection, but the content of rights has not been fully expressed, and the provisions on the realization of rights and the balance of effectiveness are not sufficient. Therefore, it is suggested that the public's right to know should be fully established, and the power of public participation should be enhanced, including the protection of the public's right of access to procedures and the right to express opinions, and to build the protection mechanism of the public's right to respond and the right to adopt reasonable opinions, and to extend the right of public supervise.
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