廖华,宁泽群.国家公园分区管控的实践总结与制度进阶[J].中国环境管理,2021,13(4):64-70
国家公园分区管控的实践总结与制度进阶
Practice Summary and System Advancement of National Park Zoning Management and Control
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2021.04.064
中文关键词:  国家公园  分区管控  实体规范  程序规范  法律责任
英文关键词:national parks  zoning management and control  physical regulations  procedural regulations  legal responsibilities
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目《共同体意识下民族地区国家公园的功能发现与制度完善》(CSY21007)。
作者单位
廖华 中南民族大学法学院, 湖北武汉 430074 
宁泽群 中南民族大学法学院, 湖北武汉 430074 
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中文摘要:
      分区管控是实现国家公园严格保护与合理利用双重目的的基础制度,也是保障原住居民发展权益的有效途径。梳理总结各试点公园的分区管控制度,本文发现存在实体规范各行其是、程序规范先天不足、责任规范流于形式的问题,难以实现保护优先、兼顾利用之间的关系。国家公园法应统一分区标准,采取二阶结构的分区管控制度,首先以世界自然保护联盟提出的“三圈层”模式划分严格保护区、缓冲区、一般控制区,进而将一般控制区划分为游憩展示区和传统利用区,并将生态保育修复区作为特别的“动态分区”。同时,提高国家公园规划及变更的审批权限并完善分区管控的法律责任,以实现实质的差别化管控和严格规范的管理。
英文摘要:
      Zoning control is a basic system to realize the dual purpose of strict protection and rational use of national parks, and it is also an effective way to protect the development rights and interests of indigenous residents. After sorting out and summarizing the zoning management and control system of each pilot park, it was found that there were problems of entity standardization, inadequacy of procedures, and mere formality of responsibility standards. These problems make it difficult to realize the relationship between protection priority and utilization. The National Park Law should unify zoning standards and adopt a second-tier structure of zoning management control system. First, the national parks are divided into strictly protected areas, buffer zones, and general control areas according to the “three circles” model proposed by the World Conservation Union, and then the general control zones are divided into recreational display zones and traditional utilization zones, and ecological conservation and restoration zones are regarded as special “Dynamic Partition”. At the same time, increase the approval authority for national park planning and changes, and improve the legal responsibilities of zoning management and control, so as to achieve substantive differentiated management and strict and standardized management.
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