张璐,王其乐.生物多样性保护规制工具更新——规范层面的分析[J].中国环境管理,2021,13(4):21-28
生物多样性保护规制工具更新——规范层面的分析
Biodiversity Conservation Regulation Tool Update from Normative Level
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2021.04.021
中文关键词:  生物多样性保护  规制工具  柔性规制
英文关键词:biodiversity conservation  regulatory tool  flexible regulation
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目“整体系统观下生物多样性保护的法律规制研究”(19ZDA162)。
作者单位
张璐 华东政法大学经济法学院, 上海 200042 
王其乐 华东政法大学经济法学院, 上海 200042 
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中文摘要:
      生物多样性保护法律的有效执行,应立足于具体规制工具的设计。生物多样性保护立法涉及三个主要法律领域——物种保育法、自然保护地法和生物安全法,从法律规范层面分析,这三个法律领域对规制工具的偏好与选择呈现出“硬者极硬,刑罚优先,软者无力”的整体格局。本文以生物多样性保护原理对现行规制工具进行检验,物种保育法和自然保护地法应以规制领域的去极端化为导向进行规制工具更新,一方面要软化甚至去除极硬规制,与此同时应建立完善行政合同、行政指导、行政奖励等柔性规制工具,赋予其可操作性,使之柔而有力。
英文摘要:
      The effective implementation of biodiversity conservation laws should be based on the design of specific regulatory tools. Biodiversity conservation legislation involves three main legal areas: Species Conservation Law, Nature Reserve Law and Biosafety Law. From the perspective of legal norms, the preferences and choices of regulatory tools in the three legal fields present an overall pattern of “the hard ones are extremely hard, the penalty is priority, and the soft ones are powerless”. The current regulatory tools are tested based on the principle of biodiversity conservation. The results show that the Species Conservation Law and Nature Reserve Law should be oriented towards de-radicalization in the regulatory field to update regulatory tools. We should soften or even remove the extremely hard regulations. At the same time, we should establish and improve the flexible regulatory tools, such as administrative contract, administrative guidance, administrative incentives, and give them operability to make them soft and powerful.
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