严厚福.“比例原则”视野下我国环境执法按日连续处罚制度的完善[J].中国环境管理,2021,13(1):142-148
“比例原则”视野下我国环境执法按日连续处罚制度的完善
The Perfection of China's Daily Penalty System in Environmental Enforcement from the Perspective of “Proportional Principle”
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2021.01.142
中文关键词:  按日连续处罚  比例原则  执行罚  违法情节
英文关键词:continuous daily penalty  proportionality principle  enforcement penalty  illegal circumstances
基金项目:国家社科基金青年项目“生态文明视野下环境行政处罚制度创新研究”(14CFX062)。
作者单位
严厚福 北京师范大学法学院, 北京 100085 
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中文摘要:
      “按日连续处罚”制度已经在环境执法中显示了巨大的威慑力,但“按照原处罚数额按日连续处罚”的计罚模式不符合行政法中的“比例原则”。在违法行为“先轻后重”或者“先重后轻”的情形下,都可能造成“过罚不当”的问题。对于初始违法情节类似,但复查时违法情节大相径庭的不同违法者,会出现“不同情节相同处罚”的不公平情形。在现有制度框架下,对于“先重后轻”的违法行为,可以考虑在违法者的改正行为已经取得显著成效的情形下不予按日连续处罚,同时依据《环境行政处罚办法》的规定,将该已经显著减轻的违法排污行为视为新的违法行为进行处罚。对于“先轻后重”的违法行为,可以在进行按日连续处罚时,视具体违法情节动用限产停产、查封扣押或者行政拘留等处罚措施。理想状态下,应当摒弃“按照原处罚数额”按日计罚的规定,改为数据值式的按日计罚,即规定“……拒不改正的,处每日××万元以上××万元以下的罚款”,以更好地实现“过罚相当”。为了避免持续性违法行为对环境造成更大的损害,按日计罚的最长期限不宜超过三十日。违法者超过三十日仍然不改正违法行为的,应当及时采取责令限产停产、查封扣押或责令关闭等措施。
英文摘要:
      The system of "daily penalty" has shown great deterrence in environmental law enforcement. However, the current model of "impose continuous fines in the amount of the original fine for each day" is not in line with the "proportional principle" in administrative law. In the situation where the offender's illegal behavior is "minor first, then severe" or "severe first, then minor", it may cause the problem of "improper punishment against the offense". For different offenders with similar initial violations but with very different violations thereafter, it may cause an unfair situation of "same punishment against different circumstances of offenses". Under the current institutional framework, for the "severe first, then minor" violations, consideration may be given to not initiate daily penalty if the violator's corrective action has achieved remarkable results. However, the latter "minor" violation shall be considered as a "new violation" and be punished according to corresponding laws and regulations; for the "minor first, then severe" violations, consideration may be given to using the measurements of restricting production or suspending business, seizure, impoundment or administrative detention when the legal conditions are met. Ideally, the amount of daily penalties shall be based on an amount with upper and lower limits so as to better achieve the goal of "penalty equivalent to the offense". In order to avoid further damage to the environment caused by continuousviolations, the maximum period of daily penalty should not exceed 30 days.
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