张捷,谌莹,石柳.基于生态元核算的长江流域横向生态补偿机制及实施方案研究[J].中国环境管理,2020,12(6):110-119
基于生态元核算的长江流域横向生态补偿机制及实施方案研究
Study on the Horizontal Ecological Compensation Mechanism and Implementation Scheme of the Yangtze River Basin Based on “Ecological Element” Accounting
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2020.06.110
中文关键词:  长江流域  生态元  横向生态补偿  生态元缓解银行
英文关键词:Yangtze River Basin  ecological element  horizontal ecological compensation  ecological mitigation bank
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目“我国重点生态功能区市场化生态补偿机制研究”(15ZDA054);湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会一般项目“基于随机前沿函数的湖南省主体功能区绿色全要素生产率研究”(XSP19YBZ180);湖南省教育厅科学研究项目“湖南省主体功能区绿色全要素生产率研究”(18K085);湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会一般项目“乡村振兴战略背景下湖南省林业碳汇市场化生态补偿的机制研究”(XSP19YBC042)。
作者单位E-mail
张捷 暨南大学资源环境与可持续发展研究所, 广东广州 510632  
谌莹 暨南大学资源环境与可持续发展研究所, 广东广州 510632
湖南工商大学财政金融学院, 湖南长沙 410205 
2668@hutb.edu.cn 
石柳 暨南大学资源环境与可持续发展研究所, 广东广州 510632
中南林业科技大学经济学院, 湖南长沙 410001 
 
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中文摘要:
      长江流域生态保护目前主要采取由中央政府主导的环境规制和专项整治模式,资金主要来源于财政转移支付。这些措施见效快、力度强,但监管成本高昂,激励机制不足,并且有可能扩大不同主体功能区之间的收入差距。现有的少数横向生态补偿协议存在适用范围有限、补偿依据单一以及微观主体难以参与等问题。本文试图构建适用于更大空间尺度且涵盖多种生态服务的综合横向生态补偿模式,以建立各地区公平分担保护成本的长效机制。首先,利用生态元的核算方法构建长江流域各类生态资源的本底数据库,测算各省(区、市)生态元总量和单位面积生态元的变化情况。其次,从概念、参与主体、补偿模式和实施效果等方面探讨了创建流域生态元缓解银行的构思及其实施机制。本文认为,流域生态无缓解银行方案有助于构建适用于长江流域的市场化生态补偿机制。
英文摘要:
      At present, the ecological protection of the Yangtze River Basin mainly adopts the environmental regulation and special regulation mode led by the central government, and the funds mainly come from the financial transfer payment. These measures have quick effect and strong strength, but the cost of supervision is high, and the incentive mechanism is insufficient. It is possible to expand the income gap between different main functional areas. There are some problems in the existing horizontal ecological compensation agreements, such as the limited scope of application, the single basis of compensation and the inability of micro subjects to participate. This paper attempts to build a comprehensive horizontal ecological compensation model that is suitable for a larger spatial scale and covers a variety of ecological services, in order to establish a long-term mechanism for each region to share the cost of protection fairly. Firstly, calculate all kinds of ecological resources in the Yangtze River Basin based on the ecological element method, calculate the changes of the total amount and unit area of ecological elements in each province. Secondly, the paper discusses the conception and implementation mechanism of establishing the basin ecological mitigation bank from the aspects of concept, participants, compensation model and implementation effect. The scheme based on the bank of river basin ecological mitigation is helpful to construct the comprehensive ecological compensation mechanism of the Yangtze River Basin.
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