王奇,姜明栋,黄雨萌.生态正外部性内部化的实现途径与机制创新[J].中国环境管理,2020,12(6):21-28
生态正外部性内部化的实现途径与机制创新
Realization Ways and Mechanism Innovation of Internalization of Ecological Positive Externalities
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2020.06.021
中文关键词:  生态正外部性  内部化  实现途径  价值确定  机制创新
英文关键词:ecological positive externalities  internalization  realization ways  value determination  mechanism innovation
基金项目:
作者单位
王奇 北京大学环境科学与工程学院, 北京 100871 
姜明栋 北京大学环境科学与工程学院, 北京 100871 
黄雨萌 北京大学环境科学与工程学院, 北京 100871 
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中文摘要:
      随着经济社会发展以及“绿水青山就是金山银山”理念在全社会的深化,迫切需要解决生态服务的区域外部性问题。正外部性内部化是实现生态服务价值的重要手段,主要包括政府购买、协议补偿、生态商品、创建市场等方式。生态正外部性的价值可以通过生态要素的直接市场、包含于生态商品的间接价值以及基于成本—收益的生态补偿标准来确定,而现有的协议补偿标准多基于上游地区的保护成本,应将发展的机会成本作为参考依据。最后,从机制上将收益内部化转变为主体内部化,可以从根本上解决保护与收益主体分离带来的一系列生态保护与经济发展的冲突问题。
英文摘要:
      With the development of economy and society, and the deepening of the conviction in the whole society that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, there is an urgent need to solve the regional externalities of ecological services. The internalization of positive externalities is an important means to realize the value of ecological services, including government purchases, agreement compensation, ecological commodities, and market creation. The value of ecological positive externalities can be determined through the direct market of ecological elements, the indirect value contained in ecological commodities, and the ecological compensation standards based on cost-benefit. The existing agreement compensation standards are mostly based on the protection costs of upstream areas, while the opportunity cost of development should be used as a reference. Finally, changing the internalization of benefits to the internalization of agents from the mechanism can fundamentally solve a series of conflicts between ecological protection and economic development, which are caused by the separation of protectors and profit gainers.
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