李凌云.从损害控制到风险预防:野生动物保护公益诉讼的优化进路[J].中国环境管理,2020,12(5):130-137
从损害控制到风险预防:野生动物保护公益诉讼的优化进路
From Damage Control to Risk Prevention: An Optimal Approach of Public Interest Litigation for Wildlife Protection
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2020.05.130
中文关键词:  野生动物保护  公益诉讼  损害控制  风险预防  预防性诉讼
英文关键词:wildlife protection  public interest litigation  damage control  risk prevention  preventive litigation
基金项目:2019年江苏省研究生科研创新计划“行政协议合约性审查研究”(KYCX19_1956);2017年教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目“新时期改革与法治关系实证研究”(17JZD004)。
作者单位
李凌云 苏州大学王健法学院, 江苏苏州 215006 
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中文摘要:
      当前野生动物保护公益诉讼主要呈现损害控制型司法模式的特性,该模式以刑事附带民事公益诉讼为常规渠道,救济对象是既成公益损害,救济方式是损害赔偿、修复及专项整治。诉讼方式谦抑性、因果关系推定规则以及案件线索发现机制事后性,为此模式的合理运行提供了理据。本文运用风险预防原则的理论框架,认为野生动物保护公益诉讼的救济客体不应局限于生态环境损害,公共卫生安全的风险预防等关联性客体也应纳入其中,而损害控制模式这种事后治理方法存在短板。基于此,应将公益诉讼的视角回溯至事前,大力倡导风险预防型司法模式。风险预防模式与损害控制模式属于二元协同关系,前者对后者发挥补强与优化功能。根据风险预防模式的救济观,可探索野生动物保护的预防性行政公益诉讼制度,并全方位构建程序规则,以实现公益诉讼的前瞻性价值。
英文摘要:
      At present, the public interest litigation of wildlife protection mainly presents the characteristics of damage control judicial mode, which takes criminal incidental civil public interest litigation as the conventional channel, and the relief object is the existing public interest damage, and the relief method is damage compensation, repair and special remediation. The modesty of litigation mode, the presumption rule of causality and the ex post mechanism of case clue discovery provide the basis for the reasonable operation of this mode. Based on the theoretical framework of the risk prevention principle, this paper holds that the relief object of the public interest litigation of wildlife protection should not be limited to the damage to the ecological environment, and the risk prevention and other related objects of public health and safety should also be included, while the damage control mode, which is a post governance method, is short. Based on this, we should go back to the perspective of public interest litigation, and vigorously advocate the judicial mode of risk prevention. The risk prevention mode and damage control mode belong to the dual coordination relationship, the former plays the role of reinforcement and optimization to the latter. According to the relief concept of risk prevention mode, we can explore the preventive administrative public interest litigation system of wildlife protection, and construct the procedural rules in an all-round way to realize the forward-looking value of public interest litigation.
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