贺晓婧,廖诗武,赵子潇,游丽,王海鲲.城市电动汽车规模化发展的大气环境影响研究[J].中国环境管理,2020,12(3):77-84
城市电动汽车规模化发展的大气环境影响研究
The Impact of Large-Scale Development of Urban Electric Vehicles on the Atmospheric Environment
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2020.03.077
中文关键词:  电动汽车  充电特性  排放清单  大气污染
英文关键词:electric vehicle  charging characteristics  emissions inventory  air pollution
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
贺晓婧 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
廖诗武 国网江苏省电力有限公司电力科学研究院, 江苏南京 211103  
赵子潇 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
游丽 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
王海鲲 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023 wanghk@nju.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      发展电动汽车被认为是有效缓解城市交通污染的重要措施,但大规模的电动汽车发展不仅有增加电力部门排放的风险,而且可能影响电网运营的稳定性。本研究以南京市为例,综合应用充电行为模式调研、蒙特卡洛模拟、COPERT模型、排放因子法等方法,系统研究了私家车、出租车和公交车三种类型电动汽车的充电特征及其对区域交通和电力部门排放的影响。结果表明,当三种车型的电动化率分别达到50%、100%和100%时,城市的NOx、PM2.5、CO、VOCs和CO2排放量将分别比基准情景减少378t、305t、20 223t、3649t和480万t。但是,SO2排放增加了1152t,并且导致南京市电网的夏季峰值负荷增加10%。为更好地改善中国城市环境空气质量,应综合考虑电动汽车有序充电、协同促进清洁电力等发展策略,最大限度地实现电动汽车的环境效益。
英文摘要:
      The development of electric vehicles is considered as an important measure to effectively alleviate urban traffic pollution. However, large-scale connection of electric vehicles may not only increase the emissions in power sector, but also affect the stability of power grid operation. Take Nanjing as an example, this study comprehensively applied charging behavior survey, Monte Carlo simulation, COPERT model and emission factor method to evaluate the charging characteristics of electric private cars, taxis and buses as well as the impact of electric vehicles on emissions from transportation and power sectors. The results show that when the electrification rate for three kinds of electric vehicles reach 50%, 100% and 100%, the emissions of NOx, PM2.5, CO, VOCs and CO2 are reduced by 378 t, 305 t, 20 223 t, 3649 t and 4.8 Mt, respectively.However, SO2 emissions increase slightly with 1152 t and lead to a 10% increase of the summer peak load in Nanjing. In order to better improve the air quality of urban environment in China, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the development strategies of orderly charging of electric vehicles and coordinated promotion of clean electricity, so as to maximize the environmental benefits of electric vehicles.
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