石海佳,项赟,周宏春,温勇,杜建伟.资源型城市的“无废城市”建设模式探讨[J].中国环境管理,2020,12(3):53-60
资源型城市的“无废城市”建设模式探讨
Discussion on No-waste Construction Mode of Resource-Based Cities
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2020.03.053
中文关键词:  无废城市  资源型城市  固废管理  循环经济  物质代谢
英文关键词:no-waste city  resource-based city  management of solid wastes  circular economy  material metabolism
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项“产业生态系统的构效关系及其政策启示研究”(PM-zx703-201602-067);广东省肇庆市四会市科技计划项目“线路板行业重金属废液资源化技术研究与应用”(PM-zx278-201803-043)。
作者单位E-mail
石海佳 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 广东广州 510655  
项赟 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 广东广州 510655  
周宏春 国务院发展研究中心, 北京 100010  
温勇 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 广东广州 510655 wenyong@scies.org 
杜建伟 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 广东广州 510655  
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中文摘要:
      资源型城市在我国经济发展大局中地位重要而特殊、历史贡献突出,城市发展的生命周期特征和物质代谢的“大进大出”特征明显,固体废物(以下简称固废)治理问题积弊已久、复杂多变。如何建设“无废城市”模式的资源型城市,是当前城市可持续发展和“无废城市”实践亟待破解的难题。本文研究分析了2017年我国资源型城市固废产生、贮存、综合利用、处置环节及管理制度体系建设的主要问题,并从制度设计、产业转型、分类利用、标准建立四个方面提出了“无废”资源型城市建设的政策建议。根据资源型城市所处生命周期发展阶段的不同,提出了基于固废“产、存、用、置、销”的存量、流量挂钩约束的发展模式。同时提出以下建议:快速成长期城市应从产业体系构建、空间布局及准入条件着手控制固废增量;平稳成熟期城市应发展完善高值化资源综合利用产业体系和制度体系;枯竭衰退期城市应注重挖掘和开发存量固废的资源价值;再生发展期城市应加强多源废物协同处置利用产业体系建设。本研究可为资源型城市的“无废城市”建设提供模式参考和政策建议。
英文摘要:
      Resource-based cities have an important and special role in China's overall economic development, with outstanding historical contributions. The life cycle characteristics of urban development and the large outflow characteristics of material metabolism are obvious. How to build “no-waste” resource-based city is a difficult problem to be solved in the current sustainable urban development and China's “no-waste city” practice. This paper studied and analyzed main issues of generation, storage, comprehensive utilization, disposal of solid wastes and construction of related management systems in China's resource-based cities in 2017, and proposed policy advices of urban construction of “no-waste” resource-based cities from four aspects: optimizing the design of institution system, promoting industries' transformation, recycling solid waste by classification, and establishing standard system. According to the different life-cycle development stages of resource-based cities, a development model based on the material flow and stock linked constraints of “production, stock, utilization, disposal, and sale” of solid waste was proposed. Fast-growing cities should start from the industrial system construction and pay more attention to the spatial layout and entry threshold of new industries to control the increase of solid waste; mature type cities should develop and improve system of comprehensive utilization of solid waste by high-value manners and institution system; resource-exhausted cities should focus on how to develop of resource value of existing solid waste stock; regeneration cities should strengthen the construction of an industrial system for the coordinated disposal and comprehensive utilization of multi-source solid wastes. The research can provide development modes and policy suggestions for the construction of “no-waste” resource-based cities in China.
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