张丽荣,孟锐,金世超,潘哲,周佳,董金池,王夏晖,王金南,常纪文.实施最严格的野生动物保护:中国现状与改革方向[J].中国环境管理,2020,12(2):5-19
实施最严格的野生动物保护:中国现状与改革方向
Protecting Wildlife by the Strictest Instruments: China's Current Situation and Reform Direction
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2020.02.005
中文关键词:  野生动物  食用  利用  公众参与
英文关键词:wildlife  edible use  utilization  public participation
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
张丽荣 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
孟锐 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
金世超 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
潘哲 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
周佳 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
董金池 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
王夏晖 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
王金南 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012 wangjn@caep.org.cn 
常纪文 国务院发展研究中心资源与环境政策研究所, 北京 100010 changjiwenlaw@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      随着全球工业化和城市化的快速发展,野生动物及其栖息地保护面临着前所未有的挑战。本文识别了我国的野生动物保护存在的主要问题:①现行《野生动物保护法》对野生动物保护范围界定过窄,资源利用主导思维干扰了野生动物保护,缺乏对生态系统与生物安全的足够重视。②由于现行野生动物保护立法、执法和管理制度不健全甚至缺失,导致野生动物驯养繁殖交易市场长期混乱,甚至成为非法野生动物交易的"洗白工具"。③社会公众群体尊重和保护野生动物意识淡薄,全民参与和监督举报机制不健全。本文认为,我国应该实施最严格的野生动物保护制度,实现人与野生动物平等、文明、和谐相处,建议:①树立尊重野生动物物种生存权、人与野生动物文明和谐相处的理念,摒弃野生动物资源利用观,重构人与野生动物平等共存关系。②清晰界定野生动物法律定义,扩大野生动物保护范围,围绕捕猎、繁育、运输、储存、转让、食用等环节,全面、科学、精准地构建最严格的野生动物保护制度。③立足于全面保护野生动物,严格禁止滥食滥用野生动物和过度商业化利用,实行野生动物保护利用特许制度,并大幅提高标准严格控制交易和利用,建立职责清晰的执法监管和惩治体系。④建立最严格的野生动物保护公众参与和司法治理体系,实施野生动物非法贸易、猎杀的行政公益诉讼制度,引导公众建立爱护保护野生动物、不食不用野生动物的文明行为,最终实现人类社会与野生动物的文明和谐共处。
英文摘要:
      With the rapid development of global industrialization and urbanization, wildlife and habitat protection are facing unprecedented challenges. This paper identified the main problems of wildlife conservation in China:(1) The current Wildlife Protection Act defines the scope of wildlife protection too narrowly. The dominant thought of resource utilization interferes with the wildlife protection. Additionally, sufficient attention to ecosystem and biological safety are absent. (2) Due to the incompleteness or absence of current wildlife protection legislation, law enforcement and management system, the market for wildlife domestication and breeding has been in a long-term disorder and has even become a "launder tool" of illegal wildlife trade. (3) Public awareness of respecting and protecting wild animals is relatively weak. The mechanism of public participation, supervision and reporting also needs to be improved. This paper argued that China should implement the strictest wildlife protection system to achieve equality, civilization and harmony between human and wildlife. The paper suggested that:(1) The concept of respecting right of existence of wildlife species as well as the harmonious coexistence between human and wildlife civilization should be established, while the concept of using wildlife resources should be abandoned, and the relationship of equal coexistence between human and wildlife should be reconstructed. (2) Clearly define the legal definition of wildlife, expand the scope of wildlife protection, and build the most rigorous wildlife protection system in a comprehensive, scientific and precise way in the processes of hunting, breeding, transportation, storage, transfer and food. (3) Based on the comprehensive protection of wildlife, the indiscriminate eating and consuming of wildlife and excessive commercial using are strictly prohibited. Implement the licensing system for the use of wildlife protection, and raise the standards significantly and control trade and utilization strictly. Establish a system of law enforcement, supervision and punishment with clear responsibilities. (4) Establish the strictest public participation and judicial management system for the protection of wildlife, implement the administrative public interest litigation system for illegal trade and hunting of wildlife, and guide the public to establish a civilized behavior of protecting, no eating and no using of wildlife, and finally realize the harmonious and civilized coexistence of human society and wildlife.
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