胡长英,李飞,董锁成.一个政府—企业双层优化环境治理模型[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(6):69-74
一个政府—企业双层优化环境治理模型
An Approach to Bi-level Programming Model on “Three Wastes” Management
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.06.069
中文关键词:  “三废”排放  环境治理  双层优化环境治理模型  最优方案
英文关键词:discharge of “three wastes”  environmental governance  bi-level programming model  optimal schemes
基金项目:中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA2003020302);国家科技基础资源调查专项(2017FY101300);国家自然科学基金(41301642)。
作者单位E-mail
胡长英 中国人民大学数学学院, 北京 100872
中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
 
李飞 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 lifeicas@163.com 
董锁成 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
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中文摘要:
      构建以政府为主导、企业为主体的环境治理体系,落实企业环境治理主体责任是我国的重大战略任务。目前地方政府环境监管亟待改善,需要加强企业生产规制,基于"污染者付费"原则促使"三废"达标排放。本研究抓住政府和企业两大主体,建立以政府为上层、企业为下层的双层优化环境治理模型,确定上层-下层目标函数及约束条件,研究地方政府环境奖罚政策与企业利润及环境行为的关联性,提出模型"乐观最优解"与"悲观最优解"及地方政府奖惩机制最优解。该模型可反映地方政府与企业的博弈过程,为寻求合理的污染奖惩方式和税费比例,促使企业在自身利润最大化的同时积极治理"三废"污染,平衡经济效益和社会效益,为企业长期粗放式生产排污严重、地方政府环境监管有待加强、西北生态安全屏障和黄河流域健康发展受到严重威胁的宁蒙沿黄地带及类似地区环境管理实践提供参考。
英文摘要:
      In order to control pollution and protect our environment, the local government should make strict regulations on the discharge of "three wastes" (waste water, waste gas and solid wastes generated in the production process) of these heavy industries, and follow the environmental economics principle:polluters pay what they pollute. The government should take necessary measures and penalties to supervise and urge those enterprises to treat their pollution seriously, i.e., discharge the "three wastes" after disposing them to reach the nationally environmental standards. This article considers the relationship between the government and the enterprise, and establishes creatively a bi-level programming model in which the government is the upper level leader and the enterprise is in the lower level. The government's goal is to protect the environment of NMZYR through developing reasonable punishment policy, which urges the enterprise to discharge their "three wastes" with standard emission, at the same time, not blow the production enthusiasm of them. On the other hand, the enterprise that is in lower level, pursuits its maximum profit, at the same time, has to comply with the emission standards given by the government. Finally, by solving the model, we explore the optimal scheme with which both the government and enterprise are satisfied, realizing the unification of economic benefit, social benefit and environmental benefit.
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