耿海清,李天威,徐鹤.我国开展政策环评的必要性及其基本框架研究[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(6):23-27
我国开展政策环评的必要性及其基本框架研究
The Necessity and Basic Framework of China's Policy Strategic Environmental Assessment
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.06.023
中文关键词:  政策环评  目标  对象  重点  程序
英文关键词:Policy SEA  objectives  targets  focus  procedure
基金项目:重大经济政策环境评价财政专项(2110203)。
作者单位
耿海清 生态环境部环境工程评估中心, 北京 100012 
李天威 生态环境部执法局, 北京 100035 
徐鹤 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津 300350 
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中文摘要:
      政策环评对决策科学化和民主化具有重要意义,我国2014年修订的《环境保护法》也为开展政策环评提供了一定法律依据。然而,由于我国政治体制和决策模式与西方国家明显不同,政策环评不能照搬国外模式,必须基于自身国情探索中国模式。为此,本文对国际上比较有代表性的政策环评实践进行了总结,对我国开展政策环评的必要性进行了分析,并探讨了我国开展政策环评需要考虑的关键问题,包括政策环评的目的、对象、重点和程序等。具体而言,对于实施政策环评的目的,可表述为健全决策机制、促进环境公平和凝聚社会共识三个方面;对于评价对象,在广义上可包含目前环境影响评价法尚未覆盖的所有高层次决策,在狭义上可将政府部门制定的行政法规、规章和规范性文件等作为重点;对于评价重点,建议整合"以影响为核心"的战略环评和"以制度为核心"的战略环评两种类型的优点,兼顾影响评价和制度评价;对于评价程序,政策环评应基于完全理性决策模式,与政策过程充分融合,在不同阶段分别发挥不同作用。
英文摘要:
      Policy Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in China is of great significance in promoting scientific and democratic decision-making, and the new revised Environmental Protection Law in 2014 has provided some legal basis for it. However, China's decision-making system is quite special and can't simply apply the policy SEA mode of other countries. In light of the scarcity of literature exploring and practices, this paper attempts to provide a comparative overview of policy SEA worldwide, clarify the needs of Policy SEA in China, and finally bring forward a framework as well as key issues of Policy SEA for China, which includes the objectives, targets, focus and procedure. For the objectives, they should orientate to improve Decision-making Mechanism, promote Environmental Equity and build Social Consensus. For the targets, all high-level decisions that are not covered by the current EIA law should be included in a broad sense, but the focus should be the normative documents, Rules and Regulations formulated by government departments. For the focus of evaluation, the advantages of "impact-centered" SEA and "institution-centered" SEA should be integrated. For the procedure, Policy SEA should be based on the complete rational decision-making model, fully integrated with the policy process, and play different roles in different stages of policy formulation.
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