宋南奇,王权明,黄杰,黄小露,张永.东北亚主要沿海国家海洋环境管理比较研究[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(6):16-22
东北亚主要沿海国家海洋环境管理比较研究
Comparative Research on Performance Evaluation of Marine Environmental Management in the Northeast Asia Region
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.06.016
中文关键词:  海洋环境管理  评价  东北亚  比较分析  模式
英文关键词:marine environmental management  evaluation  Northeast Asia  comparative analysis  model
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“海上风电的比较效益与布局模式研究”(41801195);中国海洋发展研究会和中国海洋发展研究中心资助项目“基于生态系统的海洋综合管理”(CAMAZD201713)。
作者单位E-mail
宋南奇 国家海洋环境监测中心海洋综合治理研究院, 辽宁大连 116023  
王权明 国家海洋环境监测中心海洋综合治理研究院, 辽宁大连 116023  
黄杰 国家海洋环境监测中心海洋综合治理研究院, 辽宁大连 116023 jhuang@nmemc.org.cn 
黄小露 国家海洋环境监测中心海洋综合治理研究院, 辽宁大连 116023  
张永 国家海洋局大连海洋环境监测中心站, 辽宁大连 116015  
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中文摘要:
      海洋环境管理对于保护和保全海洋环境、推动海洋经济发展、构建生态文明具有重要意义。由于不同国家和地区的政治、经济、海洋战略和文化背景的差异,海洋环境管理的实施没有一个统一的标准模式,所解决的重点问题也不一样。这种多样性使得目前还没有一套通用的海洋环境管理评价体系。为此,本文以东北亚沿海各国为例,借鉴已有研究,从机构设置、法律体系和海洋环境状况三个方面出发,构建了包含定性和定量指标的海洋环境管理效果评价指标体系,在此基础上对东北亚沿海各国海洋环境管理效果进行定量评价与对比分析。结果表明,在机构设置和法律体系方面,日本领先于其他国家;在海洋环境管理方面,朝鲜较优;综合各方面后,日本表现最优,韩国、中国次之,朝鲜、俄罗斯较差。本研究提出的评价方法,可以较为客观地反映不同政治、经济和文化背景下国家在海洋环境管理方面的努力,可为我国审视自身不足、立足国情构建我国特色的海洋环境管理体制提供重要的方法指导和实践经验。
英文摘要:
      Marine environmental management is of great significance for protecting and preserving the marine environment, promoting the development of the marine economy, and building ecological civilization. Due to the differences between and within the political, economic, marine strategies and cultural backgrounds of different countries, the implementation of marine environmental management does not have a unified standard model, and the key issues addressed are also different. A common marine environmental management evaluation system has not yet been developed.Taking the coastal countries of Northeast Asia as an example, this paper established an evaluation index system for marine environmental management from the aspects of institutional setup, legal system and marine environment, including qualitative and quantitative indicators. On this basis, the marine environmental management effects of the countries in Northeast Asian were quantitatively evaluated and compared. The evaluation results demonstrated that compared to the other four countries, Japan performed better in terms of the institutional arrangement and management and legal system aspects; and Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) performed best in terms of the evaluation aspects of the coastal environment. In terms of the general management performance, Japan performed best, followed by The Republic of Korea (ROK) and China, DPRK and Russia were the worst. Finally, the main areas to be improved in the various countries are proposed.
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