董斌.环境民事公益诉讼中预防性责任适用规则的优化路径[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(5):121-126
环境民事公益诉讼中预防性责任适用规则的优化路径
Optimization Path of the Applicable Rules of Preventive Responsibility in Environmental Civil Public Interest Litigation
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.05.121
中文关键词:  环境民事公益诉讼  预防性责任  侵害标准  规则
英文关键词:environmental civil public interest litigation  preventive responsibility  infringement standard  rule
基金项目:教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目"生态文明语境下环境法的体系化发展研究"(19JJD820003)、国家社科重大招标项目"法治的生态转型和生态文明法律制度建设研究"(14ZDC030)
作者单位
董斌 武汉大学法学院, 湖北武汉 430072 
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中文摘要:
      "防患于未然"是环境民事公益诉讼预防性责任应对环境风险的价值诉求。预防性责任是在有危害之虞或损害已经发生且侵害处于持续状态时采取的积极预防性的救济措施,面向的是抽象不确定性。预防性责任的具体表现形式主要以停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险为主。但在环境司法实践中,预防性责任呈现出环境侵害标准不明和责任形式单调等问题,掣肘环境司法良序发展。鉴于此,需对环境民事公益诉讼预防性责任适用规则进行系统性优化,在遵循预防原则的前提下,明晰环境侵害标准,增设责任承担方式,建构举证责任转换规则以及设置预防性执行措施等,进而发挥预防性责任的前瞻性预防功能,以促进环境民事公益诉讼满足实践需求。
英文摘要:
      "Preventing problems before they occur" is the value appeal of environmental civil public interest litigation preventive responsibility to deal with environmental risks.Preventive liability is an active preventive remedy that is taken when a hazard or damage has occurred and the violation is in a state of continuity, with an abstract uncertainty.The specific manifestation of preventive responsibility is mainly to stop the infringement, eliminate the obstacles, and eliminate the danger.However, in the practice of environmental justice, preventive responsibilities show problems such as unclear environmental infringement standards and monotonous forms of responsibility, which hinder the development of environmental justice.In view of this, it is necessary to systematically optimize the rules for the application of preventive liability for environmental civil public interest litigation. Under the premise of the precautionary principle, the environmental infringement standards, the additional responsibility commitment method, the construction of the burden of proof conversion rules, and the establishment of preventive enforcement measures shall be clarified.A forward-looking prevention function that takes preventive responsibility to promote environmental civil litigation to meet practical needs.
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