詹云燕.河长制的得失、争议与完善[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(4):93-98
河长制的得失、争议与完善
River Chief System: Advantage and Disadvantage, Argument and Improvement
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.04.093
中文关键词:  河长制  人治  法治  考核制度  公众参与
英文关键词:River Chief System  rule of man  rule of law  assessment system  public participation
基金项目:
作者单位
詹云燕 福建社会科学院法学所, 福建福州 350001 
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中文摘要:
      河长制从地方性实验到获得全国推广并正式写入法律,不过短短十年时间。河长制的成功之处在于解决了河湖管理保护"多龙治水"的困局,并调动了地方政府治水的积极性。但河长制也面临着高度依赖河长个人与考核制度的隐忧,其发展过程始终伴随着人治与法治之争、应急机制与长效机制之辩,以及重奖励轻惩罚、强化权力集中弱化公众参与的评价。提升与完善河长制可以从制度内与制度外两个方面着手:制度内的提升是指河长制内部机制的改良,包括考核制度的完善、公众参与水平的提高;制度外的提升是指与河长制配套的制度环境建设,包括环保行政队伍与行政执法力度的加强,以及与水环境治理相关的市场工具、政策工具与法律工具的综合运用。
英文摘要:
      In just a decade, River Chief System (RCS) has grown from a local experiment to national promotions, and finally, is signed into law. The success of RCS lies in solving the predicament of multi-governance on the protection of water environment and arousing the enthusiasm of local governments. But RCS highly depends on the individual River Chief's performance and the assessment system, which has made its development a subject of controversy. The arguments focus on four issues:Is RCS the rule of man or rule of law? Is it an emergency mechanism or a long-term mechanism? Do the assessment results of RCS end up with more reward than punishment? Does it strengthen centralization and weaken democracy? Still, RCS can make further progress inside and outside the system. Inside, RCS can advance the assessment system and raise the level of public participation. Outside, qualified environmental executive staff, strong enforcement of environmental law, as well as comprehensive application of market tools, policy tools and legal tools will contribute to RCS' effectiveness.
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