刘洪涛,郭小夏,成升魁,甄霖,刘晓洁.我国粮食生产的耕地资源环境效应特征与代价分析[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(4):67-70,78
我国粮食生产的耕地资源环境效应特征与代价分析
Environment, Resource Properties and Corresponding Cost of Arable Land Resulted from Grain Production in China
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.04.067
中文关键词:  粮食  耕地  资源环境效应  休耕  主功能区
英文关键词:grain  arable land  resource and environment effect  land fallow  main functional zone
基金项目:中国科学院重点部署项目"新时期国民营养与粮食安全"(ZDBS-DQKX);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所可桢杰出青年人才计划(2017RC102)。
作者单位
刘洪涛 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
郭小夏 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049 
成升魁 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
甄霖 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
刘晓洁 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 
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中文摘要:
      我国粮食产量逐年增长,但伴随形成的水土资源消耗和耕地环境负荷令人担忧。本文综述了近年来我国粮食生产的耕地资源环境效应基本情况,总体结论是化肥、农药、地膜等农业投入品过量使用所带来的环境负荷日趋严重。同时,对休耕模式和粮食主功能区调整这两项国家战略政策的资源消耗与环境效应进行了重点分析,建议逐步扩大在水资源超采区、重金属污染区、生态退化区等典型区域的休耕面积,积极谨慎地评估主功能区调整形成的潜在资源消耗缓解与环境效益提升作用。提出:改变以牺牲耕地资源环境为代价换取粮食持续增长、建立以资源环境效应评估为平衡点的粮食供需模式的时机已成熟,粮食生产的耕地资源环境效应,应纳入国家粮食战略安全保障整体计划中。
英文摘要:
      With the consecutive increase of grain production in China, consumption of soil and water resources, as well as environmental loading of arable lands are attracting more and more attention. With the incremental output of grains in recent years, current arable land situation and pollution triggered by excessive usage of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural films are elaborated respectively in this review. Meanwhile, land fallow as well as delimitation of main functional zones, which are treated as national strategic policies, are demonstrated to be effective in potential resource consumption alleviation and environmental improvement. Therefore, it is advised that the proportion of land fallow requires a gradual expansion in water overexploitation zones, heavy metal contaminated zones and ecological degradation zones. Moreover, the adjustment of main functional zones requires cautiously assessment in China. In sum, it is the best time-point to change the current grain supply-demand mode that only focuses on continued grain growth at the expense of wasting too much arable lands and polluting too much arable soils. A balanced and sustainable consensus between grain provision and resource consumption need to be taken into consideration. The resource and environmental assessment of arable lands should be included in the overall plan for national grain security.
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