潘家华.新中国70年生态环境建设发展的艰难历程与辉煌成就[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(4):17-24
新中国70年生态环境建设发展的艰难历程与辉煌成就
Difficulty and Glorious Progress of Ecological Environment Construction in 70 Years of New China
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.04.017
中文关键词:  生态文明建设  建国70年  改革开放  资源节约  污染控制  生态保护
英文关键词:ecological civilization construction  70th Anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China  reform and opening up  resource conservation  pollution control  ecological protection
基金项目:
作者单位
潘家华 中国社会科学院城市发展与环境研究所, 北京 100028 
摘要点击次数: 501
全文下载次数: 860
中文摘要:
      中国的生态环境建设,经历了新中国建立之初生产力低下的农耕文明、改革开放后的工业文明、迈向生态文明的三大阶段,每个阶段都有自身的特质、挑战、应对和成效。从1949年到改革开放前,中国整体上表现为农耕文明特征,自然灾害频发、粮食生产短缺、城市化水平低下。为了跳出"马尔萨斯陷阱",新中国的缔造者带领人民治理水患,兴修水利,拓荒垦殖,问题得到缓解但没有得到解决,贫困落后依然,没能彻底摆脱"马尔萨斯魔咒"。改革开放后,工业化快速推进,城市化加速发展,使农民得以从土地中解放出来,极大地提升了劳动生产力;同时也使土地得以从农民手中部分释放出来,不仅大幅提升了土地资源价值,也使土地得以休养生息自我生态修复。虽然快速的工业化、城市化进程大幅提升了生产力、积累了巨量的物质财富,但是进入21世纪以来,中国的发展逼近工业文明的生态红线、环境底线和资源上线,可持续发展挑战不断凸显。2010年后,中国全面启动生态保护、污染控制和资源节约的转型发展进程,高质量、大力度建设生态文明,推进人与自然的和谐发展。
英文摘要:
      Ecological environment construction in China has been through three periods, including low-productivity agricultural civilization at the beginning of New China, industrial civilization since reform and opening up, towards ecological civilization. Each period has its owned characteristics, challenges, response and achievement. From 1949 to the opening-up, China is characterized by agricultural civilization with frequent natural disasters, food shortage and low level of urbanization. To escape the Malthusian Trap, the founder of New China has led the people in flood control, undertaking water conservancy projects and reclaiming farmland, which has mitigated the problems but not solved them once for all. Since reform and opening up, industrialization and urbanization are advanced quickly, which make rural labor force freed from the land, and promote labor productivity and land resource value greatly. After entering the 21st century, the development of China has been approached the ecological baseline, environmental redline and resource cap of industrial civilization, and the challenges of sustainable development have also been highlighted. After 2010, China is fully activated the transition and development of ecological protection, pollution control and resource conservation, develop ecological civilization with high quality and vigorous efforts, promote the harmonious development between man and nature.
HTML  查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭