| Ecological environment construction in China has been through three periods, including low-productivity agricultural civilization at the beginning of New China, industrial civilization since reform and opening up, towards ecological civilization. Each period has its owned characteristics, challenges, response and achievement. From 1949 to the opening-up, China is characterized by agricultural civilization with frequent natural disasters, food shortage and low level of urbanization. To escape the Malthusian Trap, the founder of New China has led the people in flood control, undertaking water conservancy projects and reclaiming farmland, which has mitigated the problems but not solved them once for all. Since reform and opening up, industrialization and urbanization are advanced quickly, which make rural labor force freed from the land, and promote labor productivity and land resource value greatly. After entering the 21st century, the development of China has been approached the ecological baseline, environmental redline and resource cap of industrial civilization, and the challenges of sustainable development have also been highlighted. After 2010, China is fully activated the transition and development of ecological protection, pollution control and resource conservation, develop ecological civilization with high quality and vigorous efforts, promote the harmonious development between man and nature.