扎西德吉,曾现来,赵娜娜,李金惠.中国固体废物进出口格局演化分析——以废纸为例[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(2):31-36
中国固体废物进出口格局演化分析——以废纸为例
Evolution of Landscape and Policy for Importation and Exportation of Paper Waste in China
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.02.031
中文关键词:  固体废物  废纸  进出口贸易  中国  区域可持续发展
英文关键词:solid waste  paper waste  importation and exportation trade  China  regional sustainable development
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA071);原国土资源部资源环境承载力评价重点实验室开放课题资助课题(CCA2017.12);清华大学亚洲研究中心2018年B类项目。
作者单位E-mail
扎西德吉 清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084  
曾现来 清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084
自然资源部资源环境承载力评价重点实验室, 北京 100083 
 
赵娜娜 巴塞尔公约亚太区域中心, 北京 100084  
李金惠 清华大学环境学院, 北京 100084
巴塞尔公约亚太区域中心, 北京 100084 
jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      固体废物进出口是影响我国生态文明建设及区域可持续发展的重要因素,也是最近环境管理关注的焦点。为了认识我国固体废物的进出口形势和全球固体废物贸易的格局,本文以进口量最大的固体废物——废纸为例,系统总结梳理了近年来我国废纸进出口情况的演化,绘制了2016年国际废纸贸易的流向地图,从2015年以来的废物管理政策调整出发探讨未来废纸产业的发展和转变。研究发现:①作为主要的造纸原材料,我国废纸进口量从1996年的137万t增加到2016年的2850万t,增长了近20倍。②当前全球废纸贸易突出表现为发达国家出口、发展中国家进口的格局,我国作为最大的废纸进口国,进口约占全球总量55%的废纸,美国则为最大的废纸出口国,出口约占全球总量36%的废纸。③应对洋垃圾入境的挑战,未来我国应在进口管控、再生资源产业发展等多个方面继续加强政策的引导和调控作用,激励国内的再生资源市场,促使废纸利用企业调整产业布局,加快产业转型。
英文摘要:
      The importation and exportation (I&E) of solid waste are imposing ecological civilization establishment and regional sustainable development and have absorbed much concern from environmental science and geography. The reform of I&E policy for solid waste is playing an important role in combating national pollution. Paper waste is the greatest waste stream of importation in China. To realize the state-of-art of China's paper waste I&E and global structure of paper waste trading, we identifed China's evolution of I&E for paper waste in recent years, mapped the international trade flow of paper waste in 2016, and discussed the way forward and its response of future paper waste industry based on the policy adjusting of solid waste at the duration of 2015-2017. We found the importation of paper waste, as raw material of paper manufacturing, grew near 20 folders from 1.37 million tons in 1996 to 28.5 million tons in 2016. Geographically, global paper waste trading was characterizing with exportation from developed countries and importation from developing country. China was the largest importer of paper waste, covering approximately 55% of global importation. And the United States was the largest exporter, taking 36% of global exportation. To response the challenge of solid waste importation, China should concentrate on strengthening and adjusting the importation controlling, recycling, and renewable resource industry, activating domestic market of renewable resource, and optimizing the landscape of paper waste recycling.
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