付饶,韩冬梅,杨旖旎.农业非点源控制的美国经验借鉴[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(2):23-26
农业非点源控制的美国经验借鉴
The Experience of the American Agricultural Non-point Source Control to China
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.02.023
中文关键词:  农业非点源污染  最佳管理实践  流域管理规划
英文关键词:agricultural non-point source pollution  best management practices  watershed management planning
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目“生态补偿与乡村绿色发展协同推进体制机制与政策体系研究”(18ZD048);国家重点研发计划“化肥农药减施增效技术应用及评估研究”管理政策创设研究(2016YFD0201304)。
作者单位E-mail
付饶 农业农村部农村经济研究中心, 北京 100810  
韩冬梅 河北大学经济学院, 河北保定 071002 michelle-meimei@126.com 
杨旖旎 中央农业广播电视学校, 北京 100125  
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中文摘要:
      我国的农业非点源污染治理正处于攻坚期,但部分政策一定程度上缺少具体执行标准和规范,难以执行到位,法律法规碎片化、分散且难以评估执行效果。本文从美国治理非点源的国际经验出发,梳理了联邦层面的法律法规、农业环境管理机构的运作形式以及州层面流域管理规划和非点源控制计划。最后,根据国际经验提出了如下建议:一是建议要求各省在农业规划中加入推进农业流域治理清单;二是建议制定流域地表水质达标规划,实现点源与非点源联合管理;三是建议形成最佳管理实践规范技术指南,并对执行者进行相应补贴,形成监管机制;四是建议建立农业绿色补贴制度,鼓励地方形成可持续的农业发展机制。
英文摘要:
      Agricultural non-point source pollution control is in a critical period. Some policies lack specifc implementation standards and norms. Laws and regulations are fragmented, dispersed and difcult to evaluate the effect of implementation. Based on the experience of the United States in the governance of non-point sources, laws and regulations at the federal level, operation form of agricultural administration, state level watershed management planning and nonpoint source control planning are combed in this paper. The recommendations are divided into four parts:Firstly, we should further rationalize the functions of institutions, and invest human and fnancial resources matching agricultural non-point source emissions. Secondly, it is suggested that provinces should be required to add a list of promoting agricultural watershed management in its agricultural planning. Thirdly, it is suggested that the planning of surface water quality standards in river basins should be formulated to realize the joint management of point source and non-point source. Fourthly, referring to the best management practices, the system of green technology inventory should be established, and corresponding subsidies should be provided.
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