常纪文.国有自然资源资产管理体制改革的建议与思考[J].中国环境管理,2019,11(1):11-22
国有自然资源资产管理体制改革的建议与思考
Deepen the Reform for the Separation of Owners and Regulators of Nationalized Natural Resources to Promote the Integrated Protection of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes and Grasslands
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2019.01.011
中文关键词:  自然资源资产  资产管理  专业监管  山水林田湖草
英文关键词:natural resource assets  assets management  professional supervision  mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands
基金项目:国家社科基金重大项目"自然资源权利配置研究"(15ZDB176);生态环境保环境规划院2018年委托课题"生态环境保护基本制度与重大政策研究"。
作者单位
常纪文 国务院发展研究中心资源与环境政策研究所, 北京 100010 
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中文摘要:
      自然资源产权管理和专业监管的分立可充分发挥市场作用,进一步促进简政放权,实现对山水林田湖草的综合管理,克服监管盲点,提升综合保护绩效,促进绿水青山转化为金山银山。设立专门机构开展自然资源资产管理,《生态文明体制改革总体方案》等规定了改革依据;自然资源统一确权登记试点取得积极进展,奠定了工作基础;与自然资源资产负债表、绿色GDP核算、生态文明建设目标评价考核等结合起来,促进改革的系统化和连贯化;建议在国家和省、市成立三级国有自然资源资产管理机构,在部分区域和流域派驻机构。为保障改革的实施,需界定国有自然资源资产的范围及所有权、监管权的角色和权限;改革生态补偿、排污权有偿使用、资源有偿利用等制度;明晰流域与属地的权力(利)关系;明确自然资源资产管理职责和生态环保党政同责的关系;重构环境保护税、资源税和自然资源资产使用费的关系;规定自然资源资产管理的原则、体制、制度和责任;建立自然资源资产清单、权利清单和管理信息平台;厘清各方权利边界和监管边界,建立评价考核和奖惩机制。
英文摘要:
      The separation of property rights administration and professional supervision for natural resources make full exertive market function. Streamlining government and delegating authorities, realizing the integrated management of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands, overcoming the blind spot of supervision, improving the performance of comprehensive protection, to realize that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets. The establishment of special agencies for natural resources management, and overall plan for ecological civilization structural reform set out basis for the reform. The unified confirmation registration pilot of natural resources have made active progress, combined with natural resources balance sheet, green GDP accounting, target evaluation and assessment of ecological civilization construction, may promote the systematization and coherence of reform. It is suggested that natural resources management agencies should be set in national, provincial and city level, and accredited agencies in some region or basins. To ensure the implementation of reform, the roles and permissions of ownership and regulatory power, scope of natural resource assets should be defined; the system of ecological compensation, compensated use of emission rights, paid use of natural resources should be reformed; clarify the rights and interests relationship between basins and dependencies, relationship between administration duties of natural resource assets and the party and the government administration; restructure the relationship between environmental protection tax, resource tax and use fee of natural resource assets; stipulate the principle, system, institution and responsibility of natural resource assets management; establish the assets and rights inventory, information platform; clarify the boundary between rights and regulation, and build the evaluation, assessment and reward and punishment mechanism.
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