燕丽,杜小申.典型城市空气污染特征对比分析[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(6):92-98
典型城市空气污染特征对比分析
Comparative Analysis on the Characteristics of Air Pollution in Typical Cities
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki1674-6252.2018.06.092
中文关键词:  典型城市  污染特征  对比分析  防治对策
英文关键词:typical city  pollution characteristics  comparative analysis  control countermeasures
基金项目:国家重点研发计划"全国和重点区域大气污染控制技术和政策路线图研究"(2016YFC0207505);国家重点研发计划"中原城市群大气污染联防联控机制和整体技术方案研究"(2017YFC0212406)。
作者单位
燕丽 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012 
杜小申 郑州大学化学与分子工程学院, 环境科学研究院, 河南郑州 450001 
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中文摘要:
      本文以聊城和宁波为典型城市案例,利用两市国家环境空气质量自动监测站监测数据以及环境质量公告数据,分析南北城市大气污染特征与影响因素差异,在此基础上,提出我国南北城市大气污染防治策略。结果表明:① 2016年宁波市仅ρ(PM2.5)超出二级标准11%,ρ(SO2)和ρ(NO2)均已达标;2016年聊城市ρ(SO2)低于二级标准,ρ(NO2)仍超出二级标准2.5%,ρ(PM2.5)超出二级标准限值1.46倍。②聊城市空气污染呈现出煤烟型污染与机动车尾气污染共存的复合型大气污染特征,而宁波市空气质量呈现出明显的二次污染特征。③较低的经济发展水平是造成聊城市较高的污染物浓度以及较多的重污染天数的主观原因;而产业结构的差异是两市首要污染物不同的主观原因,地理位置与扩散条件差异是两市空气质量差异的客观原因。④建议今后在城市空气质量防治过程中,构建有针对性的城市大气污染防治策略,形成精细化管理的理念,积极开展"一市一策"研究。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, people's living standard has been improved significantly, and a series of environmental problems have emerged gradually. Studies have shown that high concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM2.5, O3 and PM10 increase the incidence of circulatory and respiratory systems in humans. As people pay more and more attention to air quality, the improvement of air quality has become a key problem that needs to be solved. Taking Liaocheng and Ningbo as typical city cases, using the monitoring data of national environmental air quality automatic monitoring station and environmental quality announcement data in the two cities, the characteristics of air pollution and the difference of influencing factors between north and south cities were analyzed. The strategies of air pollution prevention and control in north and south cities of China were put forward. The results showed that:① the average annual ρ(SO2) and ρ(NO2) of Ningbo in 2016 were lower than the second class standard, and the average annual ρ(PM2.5)of Ningbo was above the limit of second order concentration by 11%; In Liaocheng in 2016, annual ρ(SO2) was below the second class standard, ρ(NO2) is still above the second class standard by 2.5%, annual ρ(PM2.5) was still 1.46 times higher than the second class standard. ② The air pollution in Liaocheng was characterized by the coexistence of coal smoke pollution and motor vehicle exhaust pollution, while the air quality in Ningbo has obvious secondary pollution characteristics. ③ The lower level of economic development in Liaocheng was the subjective cause of higher pollutant concentration and more days of heavy pollution, while the difference of industrial structure was the subjective reason for the difference of primary pollutants between the two cities. The difference of geographical location and diffusion condition was the objective reason of air quality difference between the two cities. ④ It is suggested that in the process of urban air quality prevention and control in the future, a targeted urban air pollution prevention and control strategy should be constructed. We should form the concept of meticulous management, and carry out the "one city one policy" research actively.
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