石海佳,陈伟强,石磊,温晓晴,温勇,刘晓文.当前化学品环境管理的挑战与建议[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(6):19-28
当前化学品环境管理的挑战与建议
Status and Challenges of Environmental Management of Chemicals in China and Policy Implications
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki1674-6252.2018.06.019
中文关键词:  化学品  化学工业  化学品环境管理  环境损害  环境风险
英文关键词:chemicals  chemical industry  environmental management of chemicals  environmental hazards  environmental risk
基金项目:
作者单位
石海佳 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 土壤环境研究中心, 广东广州 610655 
陈伟强 中国科学院城市环境研究所, 中国科学院城市环境与健康重点实验室, 福建厦门 361021 
石磊 清华大学环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100084 
温晓晴 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 土壤环境研究中心, 广东广州 610655 
温勇 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 土壤环境研究中心, 广东广州 610655 
刘晓文 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 土壤环境研究中心, 广东广州 610655 
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中文摘要:
      化学品环境管理是我国当前环境保护工作中亟需加强的重要领域,并且面临三大挑战:化学品种类呈爆发式增长,化学品的生产使用量呈指数式增长以及对化学品的损害特性认知滞后。现阶段,我国的化学品管理集中在对生产流通环节的安全事故防范和对次生环境污染的治理与应对,但是对化学品造成的环境影响和健康损害却还缺乏足够的重视,相应的风险管控制度和防治体系建设也还处于摸索阶段。本文从管理对象界定、化工行业管理、管理制度设计、专业能力建设和多学科技术支撑五个方面梳理了我国当前化学品环境管理工作中存在的主要问题和不足。综合我国化学工业的发展现状和化学品环境管理的现实需求,建议从五个方面加强化学品环境管理体系的建设:①明确化学品环境管理的对象和范围,科学制定管理战略与路线;②深化对化工行业发展规律的认知,加快形成行业绿色转型的共识与行动;③定期跟踪评估政策的实施成效,建立完善的政策调整机制;④总结和借鉴国内外化学品环境管理的先进经验和教训;⑤加强化学品全流程、跨领域的研究整合,大力发展检测、模拟和评估的新技术与新方法。本研究可为我国中长期化学品环境管理战略和政策制度体系的建立提供决策支持。
英文摘要:
      Environmental management of chemicals is a field of environmental protection that has to be significantly enhanced in China. Especially, there are three important challenges:(1) the explosive growth of new chemicals, (2) the exponentially growing production and use of chemicals, and (3) the lag of understanding on the hazardous impacts of chemicals. Currently, the management of chemicals in China is mainly focused on preventing safety and health accidents and dealing with derived secondary environmental pollutions in the production and transportation processes. However, the environmental and health risks caused by chemicals have not been paid enough attention, and the Chinese government and industry are just beginning to build the environmental management system (EMS) for hazardous and toxic chemicals. This study identifies several gaps in building the EMS for chemicals, and provides the following suggestions:(1) to define the scope of environmental management of chemicals and develop professional and scientific management capacities, (2) to enhance the understanding on chemical industry and make people from various fields get consensus on the green transformation of chemical industry, (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented policies and make reasonable adjustments periodically, (4) to learn from experiences from other types of management on chemicals, and (5) to enhance the cooperation among relevant fields and develop techniques of detection, simulation and assessment of chemicals.
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