单丽,江飞,贺晓婧,谢蓉,王海鲲.中国道路交通源大气污染的健康影响评估[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(5):59-64
中国道路交通源大气污染的健康影响评估
Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution from Road Traffic Sources in China
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2018.05.059
中文关键词:  空气污染  交通源  健康负担  对策
英文关键词:air pollution  transportation source  health burden  countermeasures
基金项目:本研究得到国家自然科学基金面上项目"多尺度嵌套的城市交通污染暴露研究"(41371528)的支持。
作者单位E-mail
单丽 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
江飞 南京大学国际地球系统科学研究所, 江苏南京, 210023  
贺晓婧 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
谢蓉 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023  
王海鲲 污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 南京大学环境学院, 江苏南京 210023 wanghk@nju.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      随着经济的发展,我国机动化进程加快,机动车尾气排放已经成为城市空气污染的重要来源。对特定污染源排放引起的大气污染健康负担进行评估可以为环境空气质量管理提供科学依据。本研究遵循全球疾病负担(GBD)研究框架,应用环境空气质量模型,基于大气污染源排放清单、卫星反演PM2.5浓度、全国PM2.5导致的过早死亡等数据,对我国交通源所致的大气污染及健康负担进行评估。结果显示,2010年,我国由于交通源排放贡献的PM2.5的年平均浓度为1.49μg/m3,估计导致的过早死亡总数约11.69万人。交通源排放所致的健康负担主要集中在京津冀、长三角、珠三角以及中西部等经济发达和人口密集的地区。我国一方面需要实施更为严格的减排措施,持续控制交通源的排放量;另一方面,除了京津冀等发达区域,也需要加强对人口密集区域(如河南、山东等地)的机动车污染控制,以减少交通大气污染对人体健康的影响。
英文摘要:
      With the rapid development of economy and motorization processes, vehicle exhaust emission has become an important part of urban air pollution. The assessment of the health burden caused by air pollution from specific sources can provide a scientific basis for the management of ambient air quality. This study assesses the air pollution and health burden caused by China's transportation sources, which follows the Global Burden of Disease(GBD) research framework, combined with the application of ambient air quality model and data such as the air emission inventory, satellite retrieved PM 2.5 concentration, the national premature deaths caused by PM2.5. The results show that the annual average concentration of PM 2.5 contributed by traffic source emissions was 1.49 μg/m3 in 2010, possibly resulting in a total of approximately 116, 900 premature deaths. The health burden caused by China's transportation sources is mainly concentrated in Beijing-TianjinHebei region, Yangtze River Delta region, Pearl River Delta, Central and Western regions, where are developed or densely populated areas in China. The results of this study indicate that China urgently needs to adopt more active strategies to reduce the emissions from transport sources. At the same time, it is necessary to take measures not only in developed regions such as Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, but also in densely populated areas (such as Henan and Shandong) in order to mitigate the impact of traffic sources on human health.
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