刘耕源,杨青.生态系统服务价值非货币量核算:理论框架与方法学[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(4):10-20
生态系统服务价值非货币量核算:理论框架与方法学
Non-monetary Accounting on Ecosystem Services Valuation: Theory and Methodology
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2018.04.010
中文关键词:  生态系统服务价值  能值  非货币量核算  货币量核算
英文关键词:ecosystem services valuation  emergy  non-monetary accounting methods  monetary accounting methods
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503005)、国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目(7171101135)、国家创新群体项目(51721093)、国家自然科学基金项目(41471466、71673029)资金资助。
作者单位E-mail
刘耕源 北京师范大学环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875
北京市流域环境生态修复与综合调控工程技术研究中心, 北京 100875 
liugengyuan@bnu.edu.cn 
杨青 北京师范大学环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875  
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中文摘要:
      1997年两个开创性的著作,即Gretchen?Daily主编的Nature's Services:Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems一书及同年Robert?Costanza在Nature上发表的The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital,引发了关于生态资本和生态系统服务、政策等研究的热潮。中国近几年来也将生态文明建设提到了前所未有的高度,并提出了一系列以生态系统服务价值核算为前提的制度和措施。基于此,本研究首先综述了现有生态系统服务分类体系及其存在的不足,剖析了现有核算生态系统服务价值的两类方法,即货币量方法和非货币量方法的核心差异点与可能的融合点,构建了基于能值分析方法和融合货币量核算方法的非货币量生态系统服务功能的新的核算框架,包括:①重新分类了生态系统服务价值,即直接价值(增加NPP、固碳释氧、增加土壤、补给地下水/涵养水源、提供水源水电和农产品等)、间接价值(净化大气、水、土壤、人畜排泄物和减少水土流失/侵蚀等)和存在价值(调节气候、调蓄水量、调节径流、旅游休闲、文化教育、维持生物多样性等)三大类;②确立了各类生态系统服务价值的核算方法体系;③厘清了核算中的加和原则等,以避免重复计算。该理论和方法学是解决现有生态系统服务价值核算方法不足的尝试和完整的方法论构建。
英文摘要:
      In 1997, two seminal publications on ecosystem services (ES):an edited book by Gretchen Daily and an article in Nature on the value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital, kicked off an explosion of research, policy and application on ecosystem services. In recent years, China has also valued ecological civilization unprecedentedly and put forward a series of systems and measures taking ecosystem services valuation (ESV) as precondition. In such a circumstance, this paper first reviews the existing classification systems on ecosystem services and their drawbacks; then analyzes the key differences and possible combination of the two main ESV accounting methods, i.e., monetary and non-monetary accounting methods; based on emergy analysis method and partly combining monetary methods, a non-monetary accounting framework on ecosystem services valuation is established. It includes:① the ESV reclassification, which includes direct ecosystem services (NPP increase, carbon sequestration, groundwater recharge, water, hydropower and agricultural products supply etc.), indirect ecosystem services (the purification of air, water and soil pollutions, the degradation of human and animals excrements; water and soil retention etc.) and existing value (climate, water and runoff regulation, tourism and recreation value, cultural and education value, and biodiversity maintenance);② the establishment of non-monetary accounting methodology on ecosystem services valuation;③ the principles of accounting:summing up and take the maximum value to avoid double-counting. This theory and methodology is the great trial and a completed methodology to solve the drawbacks of existing ESV accounting methods.
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