王亚男,董旭辉,陈颖.生态环境部体制下农业面源监管的难点与应对建议[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(2):53-55
生态环境部体制下农业面源监管的难点与应对建议
Diffculties and Suggestions of Supervision for Agricultural Non-point Source under the Regulation of Ministry of Ecology and Environment
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2018.02.053
中文关键词:  生态环境部  农业面源  监管
英文关键词:Ministry of Ecology and Environment  agricultural non-point source  supervision
基金项目:
作者单位
王亚男 生态环境部环境发展中心, 北京 100029 
董旭辉 生态环境部环境发展中心, 北京 100029 
陈颖 生态环境部环境发展中心, 北京 100029 
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中文摘要:
      农业面源污染治理对完成好“水污染防治行动计划”、“大气污染防治行动计划”具有举足轻重的作用。从农业废水面源污染现状来看,畜禽养殖业排污在农业源中占绝对优势,且全国仍有90%以上的分散养殖畜禽未得到综合整治,整治力度亟需进一步加强;农业废气面源污染主要来源于秸秆焚烧,已成为重污染天气的帮凶之一,近年来秸秆综合利用率有所提升但仍存在秸秆焚烧现象。“监督指导农业面源污染治理”是生态环境部的新职能,新职能带来新挑战:由于农业源具有分布分散、受地域等因素影响较大、治理的责任主体不明确等特点,以工业污染治理为核心的环境管理体系“难以作为”;另一方面,基层监管工作缺少数据、缺少人员,现有基层环保队伍承接新职能的能力明显不足。为此,提出应对建议:一是建立适应农业面源特点的环境管理体系,二是采取多种手段强化农业面源的环境监管,三是推动各级政府加大农业面源治理力度,通过规范农业生产的清洁化水平,从源头控制农业面源污染产生量和排放量。
英文摘要:
      Prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution plays a significant role in implementing "Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution" and "Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution". From a point of view of agricultural sewage non-point source pollution, livestock feeding industry pollution contributes most among the agricultural non-point source, and more than 90% domestic dispersed feeding livestock pollution are not managed well, efforts need to be further strengthened; agricultural waste gas non-point source pollution is mainly from straw burning, which is becoming one of the "criminal" on heavy weather pollution. In recent years, straw comprehensive utilization rate increases but the burning still exists. "Supervision and guidance of agricultural non-point source pollution control" is the new function of Ministry of Ecology and Environment, which comes with new challenge:due to several characteristics of agricultural sources, which are distributed and dispersed, influenced by geographical factors and not clear for responsibility, the environmental management system focused on industry pollution control cannot works. On the other side, local government lacks data and staff, the local departments of environmental protection lack ability to take over the new function. For this purpose, this article gives several suggestions:first, establishing environmental management system that is suitable for agricultural non-point source; second, taking various measures to enhance the environmental supervision of agricultural non-point source; third, promoting all levels of governments to take efforts for agricultural non-point source treatment and controlling the amount of pollution production and emission of agricultural non-point from the source through standardizing the level of agricultural cleaner production.
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