吕忠梅,杨诗鸣.美国环境与健康管理体制借鉴[J].中国环境管理,2018,10(2):19-25
美国环境与健康管理体制借鉴
The Environmental Health Regulatory System: Experience of the United States
  
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2018.02.019
中文关键词:  美国  环境与健康  管理体制  合作机制  借鉴
英文关键词:the United States  environmental health  regulation  coordination mechanism  reference
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
吕忠梅 清华大学法学院, 北京 100811 250269528@qq.com 
杨诗鸣 美国南加州大学政治和国际关系学院, 美国洛杉机 90007  
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中文摘要:
      美国为应对环境污染带来的公共健康灾难,建立了环保局与卫生部既分工又协作的体制,两个部门都关注环境污染对人类健康的危害。在职能上,环保局侧重于管制和“污染者”,卫生部侧重于服务和“潜在受害者”。联邦层面,环保局与卫生部在管制方面和研究(信息共享)方面紧密合作。地方层面,环保局的主要职能是监督各州执行联邦标准,卫生部的主要职能是提供健康和医疗服务,并在具体工作中密切配合。借鉴美国的经验教训,明确建立“公众健康优先”的环境管理价值取向,针对环境与健康风险管理的特点推进生态环境统一监管机构改革,以法治思维和法治方法推进环境与健康治理体系建设;加强科学研究,加快建设环境与健康风险控制信息系统。
英文摘要:
      To counter the public health hazards caused by environmental pollution, the United States established an environmental health regulatory system marked by coordination and cooperation of two key federal agencies:The Environmental Protection Agency(EPA); and the Department of Health and Human Services(HHS). Sharing the goal of protecting public health, EPA focuses on regulating the "polluters", and HHS pays more attention on providing services, particularly to the "potential victims" of pollution. On the federal level, EPA and HHS work closely together in regulation and research activities. Locally, regional EPAs enforce federal regulations and assist the state governments in implementing environmental laws, and local HHS provide health and medical services. This article studies EPA-HHS cooperation at national and local levels in terms of rulemaking and environmental incident management. Experience of the US offers valuable insights to China's ongoing institutional development, suggesting that environmental management in China should follow the lead of public health priorities, reform existing institutions to incorporate risk management designs, build environmental institutions with the rule of law, and further scientific research to develop the environmental health risk information system.
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