葛荣凤,许开鹏,迟妍妍,王晶晶,张力小,张箫,张丽苹.京津冀地区矿产资源开发的生态环境影响研究[J].中国环境管理,2017,9(3):46-51
京津冀地区矿产资源开发的生态环境影响研究
Eco-environmental Impact of Mineral Resources Exploitation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
DOI:10.16868/j.cnki.1674-6252.2017.03.046
中文关键词:  京津冀  矿产资源  生态环境影响  生态风险
英文关键词:Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region  mineral resources  eco-environmental impact  ecological risk
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503004)
作者单位
葛荣凤 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012
北京师范大学环境学院环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875 
许开鹏 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 
迟妍妍 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 
王晶晶 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 
张力小 北京师范大学环境学院环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875 
张箫 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 
张丽苹 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 
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中文摘要:
      京津冀地区位于我国北方农牧交错带前缘,坝上、燕山、太行山等地区是区域水源的主要发源地,同样是京津及华北平原的主要生态屏障。对京津冀地区矿产资源开发的生态环境影响进行评价,具有重要现实意义。本文根据京津冀地区矿产资源开发现状、规划空间布局和生态环境特点,综合运用GIS空间分析技术和生态风险理论,从矿产资源的空间布局合理性角度入手,分析京津冀地区矿产资源开发利用的生态环境影响,并以此识别区域内矿产资源开发的生态风险高发区和较高发区。结果显示,京津冀地区矿产资源开发空间布局与燕山、太行山山地水源涵养与水土保持区、坝上高原风沙防护区等生态功能区存在空间重叠,规模性的矿产开发会对区域内的水源涵养、土壤保持、生物多样性维护等生态功能构成持续性影响;高海拔地区的高强度开矿同样会加剧水土流失和荒漠化。天津市滨海区,承德市宽城满族自治县,邯郸市武安市等市县因密集分布了已有的矿产开发企业,并囊括了近期矿产资源开发的众多矿区,矿产资源开发的遗留性问题也比较突出,成为矿产资源开发的生态风险高发区。在生态影响分析基础上,本文提出了有针对性的空间差异性生态保护对策,以期为京津冀地区矿产资源开发布局优化提供技术支撑。
英文摘要:
      Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is located in the leading edge of agro-pastoral ecotone, while Bashang, Yanshan and Taihang Mountains zones are the main water sources in the region, as well as the main ecological barrier of Beijing-Tianjin and North China Plain. To assess the eco-environmental impact of mineral resources exploitation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is of great practical significance. In this paper, according to the exploitation and utilization of mineral resources, its spatial allocation schemes and ecological characteristics, the mineral resources exploitation impact on eco-environment in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was analyzed in the view of the spatial distribution rationality of mineral resources. Furtherly, the persistent influence of layout planning of mineral resources was predicted. In the process of analysis, the spatial data of mineral resources planning, eco-function zones, elevation, soil erosion were overviewed on the basis of GIS technology and ecological risk theory. Results showed that spatial overlap exist between spatial distribution of mineral resources exploitation in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and Yanshan and Taihang Mountains soil-water conservation zone, Bashang plateau sand protection zone. Massive-scale mineral exploitation will constitute a persistent impact on ecological functions, such as water conservation, soil conservation, and biodiversity maintenance. The mining of high strength and high altitude will also exacerbate soil erosion and desertification. The coastal area of Tianjin, Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous county of Chengde, Wuan of Handan, other cities and counties, which were intensively distributed of mineral exploitation companies and most mining areas of planning, as well as the legacy of mineral exploitation were also more prominent, were identified as high ecological risk zones. Finally, spatial difference countermeasures of ecological protection were proposed to provide technique support for position optimization of mineral exploitation.
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