包存宽.环境影响评价制度改革应着力回归环评本质[J].中国环境管理,2015,7(3):33-39
环境影响评价制度改革应着力回归环评本质
Reform of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Aims to Return to its Essence
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  环评  制度改革  本质
英文关键词:Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)  institutional reform  essence
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41271508):协作型战略环境评价理论与模式——基于利益相关者分析和协作机制的研究。
作者单位
包存宽 复旦大学环境科学与工程系, 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      环评倍受关注,主要因为其作为环保部门的最大权力,不仅没有起到预防污染发生的作用,反而成了一些不正当利益输送的通道。本文从回顾环评在中国的发展历程和剖析环保部门、建设单位或规划编制机关、环评机构在环评中的相互关系入手,试图回答“作为环保部门最大权力为什么预防不住环境污染”的问题。研究认为,应以促进环评回归其本质作为环评制度改革的目标,按“环评脱钩→环评审批→环境违法严惩→维护公众环境权益”优先顺序,全面推进环评制度改革;环评脱钩是环评制度改革的切入点或起点;环评制度改革须抓住“如何防止环评及干预环评的任性权力”这一关键点,即环评制度改革的“牛鼻子”应是环评审批;以信息公开、社会监督确保事中有效监督,确保公众环境权益、强化污染者的损害担责,倒逼环评回归其本质;以法治和社会监督防止环评及干预环评的权力任性。
英文摘要:
      Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) draws widely attention recently, mainly because regarded as the biggest power of the Environmental Protection Department (EPD), it becomes some improper-interest transmission channel but can't prevent pollutions. This paper reviews the development of EIA in China, and analyzes the relations among the EPD, the Construction or Planning Institutes, EIA Consultants in EIA, trying to answer “Why EIA as the environmental protection department's largest power can't prevent pollution”. This research shows that promoting EIA return to its essence should be the goal of EIA's reform, according to the “EIA Consultants decoupling from the EPD, Examination and Approval of EIA, Illegal-Punishment in EIA, maintenance of Public environmental rights and interests” priorities, systematically and comprehensively promote the EIA's reform: EIA Consultants decoupling from EPD is the starting point of EIA's reform; EIA's reform must seize “how to prevent the capricious power of EIA and the intervention on EIA”, namely the reform "key knots" should be the EIA's Examination and Approval; Information Disclosure and Public Participation promotes social effective supervision, to ensure the Public's environmental rights and interests, to strengthen the polluters damage liability, to push reversed transmission of EIA to its essence, to prevent the capricious power of EIA and the intervention on EIA through the rule of law and social supervision.
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